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An Elaborate Explanation of IRR & NPV

Professional accountant's hand with pen calculating financial data.
Feasibility analysis will mean various things to various people. The term "feasibility" originated from the word "feasible," which means capable of being accomplished. Feasibility studies identify the weakness and strengths of a project, the opportunities and resources needed to carry it out, and, ultimately, the possibilities for success. Feasibility studies can be of several types, including technical, legal, economic, scheduling and operational. As we discuss the feasibility of a property development project, we mostly mean economic or financial feasibility. In its feasibility study, we do not ignore the other factors. Most of the time, we include them in the financial viability. A property investment feasibility analysis includes technical, operational, scheduling and legal feasibility.

When we glance at the final result of a financial feasibility study, we examine the most important metrics to determine the project's worth. What needs to be incorporated into the key metrics is determined by the project type, strategic funding plan, and legal structure. Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Return on Equity, Developer's Margin, and Net Present Value (NPV) are the most commonly used metrics. In this post, we'll go over the most fundamental of them: Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) are terms that are frequently used in financial management, in allocating funds in order to achieve the best results.

An Overview of Financial Feasibility Study

A financial feasibility study can help you determine whether your business is likely to succeed or fail. In this section, we go over the theories of IRR and NPV in depth so you can use them in the financial statement analysis.


Net Present Value (NPV) is commonly used when budgeting expenses or analyzing any project or investment predicted to produce cash outflows or inflows over time. The current value of forecasted cash outflows minus the current value of forecasted cash inflows for a given time is referred to as the net present value (NPV). It is a significant factor when a firm decides whether to purchase or lease a property that encompasses a financial engagement. The formula to calculate NPV is:

NPV = Sum of NV/(1+i) t

  • NV stands for the net cash flow for a period in the future
  • I stands for the rate of discount
  • T stands for time.

If the initial investment is 4,000 AED for a project, and the anticipated cash flows for the next three years are 800 AED, 1,000 AED and 900 AED, with a discount rate of 5%, NPV is calculated as:

NPV = 4000 – 800/(1+0.05)1 – 1,000/(1+0.05)2– 900/(1+0.05)3


Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is a measure used to assess the profitability of an investment. It pertains to the discount rate that reduces the cash flow's net current value, including outflows and inflows anticipated in the planned investment option, to zero. This ratio represents the anticipated performance level of the investment under consideration. As the name implies, this measure excludes external factors like inflation or other financial risk and focuses solely on the characteristics of the specific investment option. IRR will be calculated with the formula as mentioned above. When 'i', which refers to the discount measure, turns out to be IRR, NPV becomes zero.

NPV=zero= sum of Nv/(1+IRR)t

When we analyze the same that is stated above for NPV, with an initial investment of 4,000 AED in a project, and the anticipated net cash flow for three years as 800 AED, 1,000 AED and 900 AED, IRR will be the discount rate that will make NPV as zero.

NPV =4000 – 800/(1+IRR)1 – 1,000/(1+IRR)2– 900/(1+IRR)3
IRR has to be calculated for the same digits.

Factors to Take Into Account in Financial Feasibility Study

We should be able to determine the effects of IRR and NPV calculations for any proposed project. When the investment option has a positive result in NPV, it is advantageous. While comparing several investment choices, the one that gives a greater NPV is likely to provide good financial returns. To obtain an accurate NPV analysis, we must ensure that the presumptions on projected future cash flows are correct. The discount rate while calculating NPV is the anticipated lesser rate of return when the amount is engaged in any readily available alternative investment opportunity.

IRR reveals the suggested results of investment as a proportion, which can be conveniently compared for various such opportunities in order to make a well-informed decision. Similarly, projects with a higher IRR are more advantageous. Get help from a professional consulting service to know more about the financial feasibility study and its usefulness in various projects or investments.

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Learn Which is Better. IRR or NPV?

It depends on the situation to answer the question of which is better, whether IRR or NPV. If an investment or a project has a negative net present value, it is not worth pursuing because it will be worth less in the future than what it is today. IRR is useful when comparing multiple investments or projects or determining the discount rate is difficult. When cash flows can change from positive to negative (or vice versa) over time, or if there are numerous discount rates, NPV is preferable.

Also Read:Cash Flow Forecasting for Small Businesses

Final Words

We hope you understand how NPV and IRR will aid in any financial feasibility study. Before incorporating investment strategies, a thorough examination and evaluation of the feasibility report are always required. Fortius Consulting Services, one of the best business consulting services, has skilled people who can assist you in conducting reviews of financial analysis areas and preparing project feasibility reports in the business. During prospective undertakings, we can offer you value-added results on various accounting and tax aspects and highlight any financial risks. Contact us if you still require advice on IRR and NPV financial feasibility studies. Our professionals can walk you through and address all your questions.